The territory of the municipality of Rožaje is located in the northeast of Montenegro and can be coordinately positioned between 42°45' and 42°59' north latitude and 17°41' and 18°00' east longitude. It covers an area of 415 km2 or 3.16% of the territory of Montenegro (Radojičić, 2008). The territory of the municipality represents the natural connection of Montenegro with Kosovo and further with North Macedonia in one direction and Serbia in the other. The municipality of Rožaje borders the municipalities of Berane, Petnjica, Tutina in Serbia and the municipality of Peć. The space, that is, the total length of the borders of Rožaj, not counting slopes, is 103 km.
Relief of the municipality of Rožaje
The municipality of Rožaje is located in the altitude range (760 masl - the mouth of the river Ibar) to Hajla 2,403 masl (Radojičić, 2008). At an elevation of 1,643 m, there are many landforms: vertical rocks, Stožina (Ahmica) high mountain passes, ridges and surfaces, gentle valleys, harsh canyons (Ibra and Bukovica canyons, as the most striking), but only one lake mountain eye, Blato.
Geographical affiliation of the terrain
The territory of the Rožaj municipality is located within two large geographical and morphotectonic areas. One consists of the final northern and northeastern massif of Prokletije, which have always been, and remain, the least known in every respect, not only in our country but also in Europe. Rožaj border the frames that start in Smiljevica at the source of the Ibro čelenka, then through Hajla, Ahmica, nearby Rusolija, Štedim and both Beljes and end with the view of Mokra Gora. In the regional geomorphology, they belong to the Surfaces and Razvršje of the Dinarides.
According to its geographical position and altitude, the Rožaj region belongs to the temperate-continental zone. The relatively warm and dry season lasts 4 months and the relatively cold and wet season lasts 8 months.It is noticeable that in the last period we have a warming trend and therefore an increase in temperatures, which is a consequence of global warming through the greenhouse effect, so the indicators from the above table have been changed.
The river network of the municipality of Rožaje is very dense, but this density is unevenly distributed throughout the municipality. As an example, Županica has 1476 m, and the Bukovica river has 733 m on a length of 1 km², they are tributaries of the Ibar. In the entire area of the municipality of Rožaje, there are almost all types of terrestrial water - underground water (spring, crevasse, mineral) and surface water, springs, springs, streams, rivers, puddles and ponds. Only there is no lake. The total length of all streams is over 323 km (Martinović and Markišić, 2002). From an economic point of view, the river Ibar with its larger tributaries has the greatest importance.
Flora and fauna
Climatic conditions, geographical position, peculiarity of the relief, diverse geological structure, diversity of soil types, historical development of the flora and vegetation of the Rožaj area are very specific. In this relatively small area, one can see the development of vegetation through long historical periods, because many species of the tertiary age have been preserved, as well as altered fragments of their communities. As an example of tertiary relics, the following can be cited: Serbian ramondia (Ramonda serbica Pančić), which grows in the gorge of the Bukovička river, munika (Pinus heldereichii Chist) and its forest on the Lazanski krushi above the village of Kaluđerski Laz, molika (Pinus peuce Griseb.) and its forest in Hajla, Ahmica, Štedim, Kula, Serbian pancicia (Pancicia serbica Vis.), which is widely distributed in the mountain and subalpine belt of the mountains around Rožaj, where it forms part of the vegetation of mountain meadows and meadows.
History of Rožaj
The time of origin of Rožaje cannot be determined exactly, but it is reliably established that the settlement named Rožaje was recorded in a Turkish written source in 1571, while the fortress of the same name is mentioned in the Turkish census from 1640. However, according to the Turkish historian Hamer, the settlement of Rožaje was founded in 1683. In the Ottoman era, the settlement built around the fortification was called "Trgovište" and it bore that name until 1912. Famous Turkish travel writers Evlija Celebija and Mustafa Hadži-Kalfa mention it under that name. There are several interpretations of the origin of the name Rožaje. According to one, which is supported by most interpreters, the city got its name from the name of the old fortress "Rogaje", and the French travel writer Ami Bue derives the name Rožaje from the word "horn" from the limestone cliques that are located under the Ganić karst. Archaeological sites testify, however, to human settlements from ancient times, even before the new era. Before the arrival of the Slavs, Illyrians and Romans lived here. In the Middle Ages, the area of Rožaj and Bihor was the central part of the medieval state of Raška. Proof of this is the archaeological finds in Graz, Gospodgin vrh, Gradina, Bačevac, and tumuli, remains of churches and monasteries, hermitage caves, old cemeteries, popularly known as Latin and Greek. Since 1912, the Rožaj region has been part of the state of Montenegro.
Culture of Rožaj
The presence of several cultures in different periods of prehistory and history in the Rožaj area is indicated by many toponyms, folk traditions, and especially many cultural and historical monuments. In the vicinity of the city on the Brezovica hill, there are well-preserved but not sufficiently explored and studied remains of an Illyrian settlement. There are also numerous monuments of material culture from the Middle Ages and the Turkish era. The most important among them are: - Ruzica Church in Suho Dol - Church of Our Lady's Peak on the mountain of the same name, endowment of Jelena Anžujska, wife of Uroš I Nemanjica -Kurtagića mosque, which was built by Sultan Murat II in 1697 - Kučan mosque built in 1830 -Ganića Tower built in the first years of the 19th century. In the municipality of Rožaj, in addition to primary schools, there are also two high schools - Gymnasium and Mixed High School. In the city of Rožaje, which in 1999 developed as a modern settlement, with the simultaneous care for the preservation of specificity and tradition. The Center for Culture is responsible for organizing cultural life and cultural events. The center, among other things, publishes the magazine "Rožajski zbornik", organizes book promotions, art exhibitions, and especially exhibitions of paintings by native painters gathered in the "Kula" association. There is also a national library within the Center for Culture. For three decades now, the Center for Culture has been organizing the renowned children's song festival "Golden Snowflake" every February. ".